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Set beat times and volumes (check box) - (no tooltip help yet)Part - (no tooltip help yet)Highlight part. RIGHT CLICK to change timing, LEFT CLICK for volumes - To edit highlighted row use the buttons belowHighlight part. RIGHT CLICK to change timing, LEFT CLICK for volumes - Left click on a note to change its volume, right click to change timing...Highlight part. RIGHT CLICK to change timing, LEFT CLICK for volumes - LEFT CLICK to change the melody seed numbers - which changes the melody for the tune, RIGHT CLICK to change timing...Beats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76) - Adjust the amount of the lilt or swing, or adjust individual beats...Beats As Text (Ctrl + 77) - Adjust individual beats as numbers - also in the PRO metronome - adjust the amount of the lilt or swing...RESET BEATS for part 2... (button) - (no tooltip help yet)Select a Part to adjust (editable) - Choose which part to adjust the beats forRhythm plays: (editable) - How many parts to set or number of parts to play in fractal tuneRhythm plays: (spin) - Adjust the the number of parts up / downTool tip help - F1Organise Windows - F2Fractal Tunes Dialog Star - Tip of the day - Fractal Tunes category - right click for neighbouring windows...PLAY Sound (button) - Play Sound - play the rhythm or stop play - SHORTCUT: RETURN KEY - May need to ADJUST SYNC. of bounce with sound...Pause (button) - Pause playback, or continue playVolume - Set master volume for Bounce Metronome. Other controls also affect the volume...Play bouncing Balls (button) - Animate the bouncing balls or stop the animation...More » More (button) - Shows this window with either more space, more options, or alternative layoutBouncingBall - Shows balls bouncing in time with the rhythm, and various controls you can use to adjust the rhythm...Skip coincident notes (check box) - Skips coincident notes in the parts with most notes - may be useful when each part plays a different instrument...
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Play, Rhythms and Bounce/Beats/Beats - Set beat times and volumes individually - Click on button or other control in this image to jump to its tooltip.    

Previous: Retune With Tuning Tables (.Tun, Sysex, or Velocity Retuning).

Next: Beats As Text
Controls Common to Many Windows

Contents

Screen Shot (More)

Set beat times and volumes (check box) - (no tooltip help yet)Part - (no tooltip help yet)Highlight part. RIGHT CLICK to change timing, LEFT CLICK for volumes - To edit highlighted row use the buttons belowBeats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76) - Adjust the amount of the lilt or swing, or adjust individual beats...Beats As Text (Ctrl + 77) - Adjust individual beats as numbers - also in the PRO metronome - adjust the amount of the lilt or swing...RESET BEATS for part 2... (button) - (no tooltip help yet)Or tap out rhythm for part 2 below - Tap a new rhythm for the highlighted part here...Or tap out rhythm for part 2 below (editable) - This shows the recorded times for the taps for your rhythm...Make New Musical Seeds (button) - Makes new musical bars for all the parts, keeps times and volumes...Randomise formula (button) - Randomise the formula for Make New Musical Bars...Modulus (editable) - You can enter several numbers here one after another...Modulus (spin) - Increase or decrease the first modulus...Modulus (editable) - Formula for bars in L, N, X, P1, P2, in Modular (or Clock) arithmetic...Max display Mult for fractional beats (editable) - Sets the default number of bars (usually) in the repeat cycle for accents, skips etc for golden ratio, pi etc....Tool tip help - F1Organise Windows - F2Fractal Tunes Dialog Star - Tip of the day - Fractal Tunes category - right click for neighbouring windows...PLAY Sound (button) - Play Sound - play the rhythm or stop play - SHORTCUT: RETURN KEY - May need to ADJUST SYNC. of bounce with sound...Pause (button) - Pause playback, or continue playVolume - Set master volume for Bounce Metronome. Other controls also affect the volume...Play bouncing Balls (button) - Animate the bouncing balls or stop the animation...Less « Less (button) - Shows this window with either less space, less options, or alternative layoutLess « Less - Left click on a note to change its volume, right click to change timing...Less « Less - LEFT CLICK to change the melody seed numbers - which changes the melody for the tune, RIGHT CLICK to change timing...BouncingBall - Shows balls bouncing in time with the rhythm, and various controls you can use to adjust the rhythm...Rhythm plays: (editable) - How many parts to set or number of parts to play in fractal tuneparts (spin) - Adjust the the number of parts up / downSwing, Auto Accents and Time Signature Change - Preferences (Ctrl + 232) - Configure how the swing and lilt is done...Lilt or swing (check box) - For a more natural feel or practice Jazz rhythms, Scottish folk music etc...Select a Part to adjust (editable) - Choose which part to adjust the beats forAdjust Swing (slider) - Move slider to adjust the amount of swing - OR click here then use LEFT and RIGHT keys, Page Up, Page Down, Home or End...Select a Part to adjust (editable) - Number of beats per bar for the selected partSelect a Part to adjust (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Adjust Swing for Part with Most Beats (slider) - Move slider to adjust the amount of swing for this part - OR use LEFT and RIGHT keys, Page Up, Page Down, Home or End. Hold down SHIFT key for REVERSE SWING...Beats per "bar" (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Pulse (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Adjust Swing for 2nd Part (slider) - Adjust amount of swing for part 2Beats per "bar" (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Pulse (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Adjust Swing for 3rd Part (slider) - (no tooltip help yet)Beats per "bar" (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Pulse (editable) - (no tooltip help yet); (semicolon) Play Seed (button) - Plays the rhythm or melody for the highlighted part for one bar...Skip coincident notes (check box) - Skips coincident notes in the parts with most notes - may be useful when each part plays a different instrument...Only swing part with most beats (check box) - This is usually the part you want to swing if you swing one part only...Swings for all the parts (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Auto Accents (check box) - Varies volumes of the OFF BEAT NOTES automatically. For triplets or n-tuplets, makes them gradually quieter, in the way a drumstick bounces if you let it fall loosely...Auto Accents for all parts (editable) - (no tooltip help yet)Swing Options... (button) - (no tooltip help yet)
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Play, Rhythms and Bounce/Beats/Beats - Set beat times and volumes individually - Click on button or other control in this image to jump to its tooltip.    


This is what you get in the More version of this window (you use the More button to show it).

Beats - Set beat times and volumes individually

Set the beat times and volumes individually for any beat in any of the parts in the rhythm - overview of all the parts..

How to get here

Beats button in the Bounce Metronome window - or Ctrl + 31

How to use this window

Highlight the first row, which plays the first rhythm, usually the fastest beat pattern.

Then use the Set Beat Times and Volumes button or the Beats as Text to set the times and volumes individually for each beat in the rhythm.

You can also set the beats individually for the second row and later rows. This will change the timings for the first row. To do this, you also need to select Adjust beats up to part 2 (or higher).

Example. With the rhythm 6 2 1 for compound time, if you adjust the second row, corresponding to the 2, this will affect the 6 beats as well. If you make the first half of the bar shorter, then the three beats that get played in that part of the bar will need to be played in a shorter period of time.

If you have edited the beats for the first row as well, then the result is a combination of the timings of the first and middle row.

For instance if the first row has three short beats then three long beats, and the second bar has one long beat followed by one short beat, then the first three beats are shorter than the last three because of the first part timings, but made longer because of the second part timings.

In a situation like that, depending on the details, the first few beats may end up shorter, or longer than the last three. They may end up the same length as the last three if the timings balance each other exactly.

You can also use the Find Beats from recording by Exact Count or Freq Spectrum (Ctrl + 72) window to extract the beat timings from a recording, e.g. of a live performance, i.e. the "groove" - either automatically, or by eye by clicking on the visible positions of the beats in the recording.

Highlight part. RIGHT CLICK to change timing, LEFT CLICK for volumes

To edit highlighted row use the buttons below

Beats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76)

Adjust the amount of the lilt or swing, or adjust individual beats...

Lets you adjust individual beats by hand. That's the only feature available here for Bounce Metronome Basic. The swing and lilt options are available for the other metronomes.

For a more natural feel or practice Jazz rhythms, Scottish folk music etc...

Beats As Text (Ctrl + 77)

Adjust individual beats as numbers - also in the PRO metronome - adjust the amount of the lilt or swing...

For a more natural feel and a more lively rhythm. Or with a stronger level of swing, use to practise rhythms that require swing, such as Jazz rhythms, Scottish folk music etc...

Or tap out rhythm for part 2 below (Alt + Y)

Tap a new rhythm for the highlighted part here...

You tap on the text with left click, and use right click to end last note.

Alternatively use space bar to tap, and alternatively type any letter key to end last note.

You can also use Ctrl + Space to start recording taps, and then Ctrl + Space again to end the recording. Works same way as tap on the text but you can do it anywhere in Bounce Metronome.

You can choose which part to record to - type the number for the part e.g. 1, 2 etc. in place of a normal tap and that will change to the desired part ready for tapping. Or just select another part via the tempo dial etc.

Recording rhythms in more than one part

Although you can record the rhythm for several parts it is usually better to just record the one part and leave any other parts at their preset setting (all the beats for the part the same length)

Why is this? The thing is, the rhythms in the different parts influence each other - for instance if you tap out a 6/8 rhythm if you just set the second part to two equal notes, then they automatically adjust to fit each other. In this case, the second note will adjust to the position of the third beat in your six notes for the first part. If you try to record the second part as well, then whichever of the two beats is shorter will make all three notes in the 6 beats per bar part shorter than the recorded times.

Or tap out rhythm for part 2 below (editable)

This shows the recorded times for the taps for your rhythm...

You can also see the visuals change and see the numbers in Beats As Text (Ctrl + 77)

Make New Musical Seeds (button)

Makes new musical seeds for all the parts, keeps times and volumes...

This makes a musical seed for the tune using the formula and the modulus.

Numbers are substituted for the letters in the formula, then the formula is calculated using modulo arithmetic to get the result. This is repeated for each note in each of the seeds.

Randomise formula (button)

Randomise the formula for Make New Musical Bars...

Each time you randomise the formula, use the Make New Musical Bars button to make bars for the new formula.

Or use Shift + click on the Randomise Formula button to randomise the formula and make the new bars all in one go.

Modulus (editable)

You can enter several numbers here one after another...

This is the modulus to use for the Make New Musical Bars button. I.e. the number to use to get the remainder for the modular arithmetic - which you may possibly know as "clock arithmetic".

If you are unsure what this is all about then see the introduction to clock arithmetic below.

What happens when you have several numbers here instead of just one

If you have just one modulus, say 5, then the formula will be worked out then the remainder found on dividing the result by 5 or whatever the number is.

If you have several moduli, e.g. 4 and 5, the formula will be worked out, then the remainder found separately for each modulus, then the results added.

With more than one modulus that helps with the situation where you have a long seed with a small modulus which otherwise could lead to a rather repetitive seed. By using several moduli in this way, you get a seed that repeats more or less, but with subtle variations which can be a pleasant and intriguing musical effect.

Introduction to clock arithmetic

To understand this - take the example of a clock. If you add 4 hours to say 11 o'clock then in the twelve hour clock you get 3 o'clock, instead of 14 o'clock. Expressed mathematically, what happens is that you add the numbers then find the remainder on dividing by 12.

Since its the remainder on dividing by 12, we say that it is clock arithmetic, or modular arithmetic, with modulus 12.

You can multiply too in clock arithmetic e.g. to multiply 3 by 5 start at 0 o'clock (midnight) and go forward by five hours three times - same effect as 5*3 and you will get to 15 o'clock - which in the 12 hour clock is 3, the remainder on divide by 12.

Similarly you could use clock arithmetic with modulus 24 for a 24 hour clock.

Well generally you can do the same thing with any number you please as the modulus. You can do arithmetic and it works pretty much like ordinary arithmetic and has interesting properties which intrigue mathematicians and are also useful too.

Here the reason it might be good for making musical bars is because modulo arithmetic can generate interesting patterns.

Modulus (spin)

Increase or decrease the first modulus...

You can also use the click and drag method to adjust the numbers.

Click on the number. Then DRAG with the mouse still held down, up or down, right out of the text box and keep dragging - the number will increase or decrease one step at a time and change more the further you drag.

To change the number yet further just release the mouse button, click on the number again, and drag again, and repeat this as often as you need.

When you have several numbers in this text box, then you can use Ctrl + click and drag on the number you want to adjust.

For keyboard users another method is to place the typing cursor (or caret) just before the number you want to change, and use Page Up / down, or Ctrl + Page up / down if there are several numbers.

Modulus (editable)

Formula for bars in L, N, X, P1, P2, in Modular (or Clock) arithmetic...

You can use the Randomise Formula button to make a random formula. Then use the Make Modular Arithmetic Bars button to fill the bars for layers.

How the formula works

L = layer

N = position in seed - 1, i.e. the position starting at 0 instead of 1

P1 = previous number in the seed for this row

P2 = number two places back in the row.

etc.

X = position in seed as decimal between 0 and 1 - useful when multiplied by other numbers e.g. sin(2*pi*X)*10 gives number between 0 and 10

You can use functions like sine, cos etc that yield fractions - the final answer of the calculation is converted to the nearest whole number.

Then you subtract the first number in the seed from all the numbers.

Finally, it's modular arithmetic, so you find the remainder on dividing by the modulus. So, the seed numbers you get are always between 0 and the modulus.

Max display Mult for fractional beats (editable)

Sets the default number of bars (usually) in the repeat cycle for accents, skips etc for golden ratio, pi etc....

This is for numbers of beats per bar like Pi or G that can't be converted into a ratio of small numbers. This is usually the same as the number of bars the rhythm can be played for with exact timings when you use accents, adjust the timing etc (all rhythms with set beat timings and volumes switched on in Beats - Overview of all the Parts (Ctrl + 31)).

Only makes a difference for skipped beats, accents etc

If you switch off the option to set beat times and volumes in Beats - Overview of all the Parts (Ctrl + 31) then this number is ignored. The rhythm then can be played with exact timings, endlessly.

The option to set beat times and volumes gets switched on automatically whenever you have skipped beats, accents, fractal tunes, or instruments set individually for each beat, and when you adjust the timing of individual beats in the rhythm.

How it works for rhythms with skipped beats, accents etc.

The rhythm is played with exact times for al lthe beats for this number of bars and then there is a "skip" in the timing before the next cycle.

Default value

The default for this is high, 10000 so you can play at least 10000 bars with accents or skipped beats with exact timings for the golden ratio rhythms etc.

That's enough to last for over two hours at a fast tempo of 60 bars per minute.

You might want to set this higher if you want to play the golden ratio rhythms and the like for even longer or need to play them at an extremely fast tempo.

Less « Less

Left click on a note to change its volume, right click to change timing...

volumes

To change the volume of a note just click on it. There is no need to drag though it does no harm.

timings

To change the timing, right click. This changes the position of the nearest note boundary to the click.

So to make a note shorter, right click on the line to the right of the note. To change the start time of the note, right click on the line to its left.

You can drag if you like. Dragging the notes seems to be the most intuitive approach for the note timings perhaps.

Zoom in

If the seed has many notes, or has some sections with many short notes in a short space of time, you may need to zoom in on part of the seed to see it in detail.

To do that, hold down the ALT key and drag over the area of interest. This will bring it up in a new window which you can then use to edit it just as you do for the original.

Less « Less

LEFT CLICK to change the melody seed numbers - which changes the melody for the tune, RIGHT CLICK to change timing...

This adjusts the seed numbers. These have to be whole numbers - show the grid (an option in the More version of this window) if you want to see how many steps there are - the grid has lines every three seed notes.

The vertical scale in this picture changes as you use larger numbers.

To add higher numbers, click above the highest note in your seed. The picture will auto re-scale if needed to show your new number. Similarly for lower numbers click below the lowest note.

To see the effect of your actions on the seed numbers themselves,have the Beats As Text (Ctrl + 77) window open at the same time.

Zoom in

If the seed has many notes, or has some sections with many short notes in a short space of time, you may need to zoom in on part of the seed to see it in detail.

To do that, hold down the ALT key and drag over the area of interest. This will bring it up in a new window which you can then use to edit it just as you do for the original.

BouncingBall

Shows balls bouncing in time with the rhythm, and various controls you can use to adjust the rhythm...

Quick start for the Bouncing Balls controls

LEFT CLICK ON THE GRAY SEMICIRCLES to Show / hide the blocks and the parts adjustments.

LEFT or RIGHT CLICK on BLOCKS to ADJUST INDIVIDUAL BEATS, e.g. to skip beats, accent beats, or change volumes. Hover the mouse over a beat for more information.

You can also LEFT CLICK on the main display to restart the bar. This only works if the balls are bouncing silently. When the sound is playing the bouncing balls always synchronise with the sound.

You see this tip when you hover the mouse over the bouncing balls themselves. hover the mouse over the title bar of 2D Bounce (Ctrl + 219) for background information.

More Details

The gray semi-circles to left and right can be used to show the beats for each part as blocks below the bouncing balls - and to show controls you can use to adjust the individual parts in the rhythm.

Each row of shaded blocks shows one of the parts. For instance 6/8 has three parts. One of the parts plays the six beats to a bar (as quavers). Another part plays two beats to the bar, so that you can hear the middle beat clearly. Another part plays the bar beat.

Each row is the same colour hue as its bouncing ball, though lighter in shade. In each row, the blocks show the individual beats in the rhythm, and the size of each block shows the duration of the beat. The blocks are all done with the first beat of the bar to the left, and last beat to the right (and shown reversed when the balls bounce from right to left).

If you have the display set up so that all the balls bounce together then the balls for each part bounce on the divisions between the beats. However you may have the balls bouncing in opposite directions for polyrhythms like 3 with 4 / 4. If you have a setup like that and also beats varying in size, then the balls may not bounce on the divisions between beats for all the parts.

How to use the blocks to adjust the rhythm

You can LEFT CLICK on a beat to SKIP it, or to adjust the timing of individual beats. You can RIGHT CLICK to ACCENT it, and MIDDLE CLICK or SHIFT + CLICK to adjust the volumes. For more details hover the mouse over the blocks.

Tap out rhythm

You can RIGHT CLICK on any of the parts, to tap out an entire new rhythm. The last click ends the bar so for instance to tap out a bar with four beats, tap four times for your rhythm, then add a fifth tap for the start of the next bar.

Right click on the part you want to adjust the rhythm for - as the rhythm is used for the currently highlighted part.

Another way to tap out an entire rhythm is to use the SPACE BAR on your keyboard. Again, right click on the desired part first to choose the part to set the rhythm for.

Then use Ctrl + SPACE to switch on the SPACE BAR RHYTHM TAPS. Then tap out the rhythm. Use CTRL + SPACE to switch the taps off again when finished

How to play your rhythm back at speed

To play your rhythm at the speed you tapped it, set the beats tempo in the main window to 60 beats per minute. Set it faster than that, or slower. if you want it speeded up or slowed down.

Parts adjustments

You can ue the diamonds, circles and rectangles to the left of the bouncing ball display to hide any of the bouncing balls, change the instrument for a part, or silence any of the parts.

You can use the triangles to the right to vary the number of beats in each part or the number of parts.

To find out what one of those controls does - just hover the mouse over it.

How the blocks work for scripted additive rhythms

These rhythms show up as separate bars along the bottom of the window, one after another, with only one of them highlighted.

With these rhythms, you can click to select one of the bars of the rhythm - this lets you change between the sections of the script manually.

These rhythms are made automatically by Bounce Metronome by creating a script for Tune Script (Ctrl + 171). Because the rhythm is scripted, you can't adjust the beat timings by hand for these rhythms, at least not permanently. If you do adjust the individual beats (for instance using Beats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76)) then the next time that bar is played the script will just set the beats back to the way they were before.

However you can play these rhythms with swing.

You can also make your own scripted rhythms with skipped beats or using any of the other features of Bounce Metronome using Tune Script (Ctrl + 171) - explore auto script in that window.

For instance, one way to do it, if you switch on auto script and then play the rhythm slowly until the script highlight reaches the bar you want to adjust, you can then adjust the beats using Beats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76) as normal and your changes will be added into the script at that point.

Rhythm plays: (editable)

How many parts to set or number of parts to play in fractal tune

parts (spin) (Alt + S)

Adjust the the number of parts up / down

Swing, Auto Accents and Time Signature Change - Preferences (Ctrl + 232)

Configure how the swing and lilt is done...

So for instance, you may want to make the last beat of the bar a little longer. Performers often do this, the "up beat" leading into the first beat of the next bar is a bit longer, has a bit of slack to it, a moment of slight rest before the energetic start of the next bar.

It's not necessarily the longest beat in the bar, the first beat may be longer for instance, but just a bit longer than expected for its position in the bar, so e.g. a bar of four beats may go long, a bit shorter, a bit shorter again, then back to nearly as long as the first one.

So anyway this is a subtle effect, so you probably don't want it to be as strong as say swing, depending. But you can also combine this with swing as well, e.g. in four beats to the bar with two subdivisions, swing the 8 beat part for the subdivisions, and add a gentle lilt to the four beat part - to do that unselect the option to swing part with most beats only. You also need to unselect Shuffle, and then if necessary adjust the pulse for individual parts.

BTW interesting reference on microtiming in rhythm, chapter " Microtiming studies" in thesis by Vijay Iyer at Berkeley university here:

http://archive.cnmat.berkeley.edu/People/Vijay/06.%20Microtiming%20Studies.html

Lilt or swing (check box) (Alt + W)

For a more natural feel or practice Jazz rhythms, Scottish folk music etc...

I'll start by going through some typical ways to use this feature for a quick start. Scroll down if new to swing or lilt to find out more about them - see http://www.robertinventor.com/wiki/swung_notes.htm further down this page - also later in this page you can find out more about how the swing is implemeneted in Bounce Metronome.

Some typical ways to use this feature

Swing

You can use this to practise swing rhythms such as for Jazz. To do that you set up a rhythm with two subdivisions of each beat - and then as you adjust the swing, the first beat in each pair of subdivisions gets longer and the second beat shorter.

Lilt

Or you can use this to add a gentle lilt to the rhythm as a whole. You can use it like this with a rhythm without subdivisions such as 4/4. Just switch this on but set the slider to a small amount towards the left of the range. This will make the beats in the bar slightly uneven and more natural sounding which you may find helps with practice.

Scottish Jigs and other swung 6/8

If you use this option with compound time rhythms like 6/8 then the triplets get swung. In a triplet swing then the first beat is long, second beat is shorter third beat is between the first two in duration. It's similar rhythm to a triple stroke buzz roll on a drum - the triplet beats get shorter and shorter - then there's a slight pause before start of the next triplet just like the (very slight) pause you get as the drummer lifts the drum stick between buzz rolls - not really a pause - just a gap that is a bit longer than the gap between the last two strokes of the buzz roll.

Buzz rolls

You can also use this option with rhythms with more than 3 subdivisions of each beat. Each one will be played like a buzz roll on a drum of the same number of beats. Again you can use this with a hard swing for an n-tuplet version of the scottich swung triplet or for a buzz roll effect - or with a gentle lilt just to make the n-tuplets a bit uneven in an interesting way. If you want a buzz roll effect with 4 or more subdivisions, make sure you switch off the "Shuffle - Auto pulse as 2 subdivisions if possible" option in Swing, Auto Accents and Time Signature Change - Preferences (Ctrl + 232)

Swing part with most beats only=

Normally you swing just one of the parts, most often the part with most subdivisions. But when musicians play, the beats themselves are also uneven slightly, as well as the subdivisions. To set up a rhythm like that then you can switch off "Swing part with most beats only" - also switch off "Swing all the same" both in Swing, Auto Accents and Time Signature Change - Preferences (Ctrl + 232).

Then you can set the swing or lilt independently for each part. You might set the subdivisions to a hard swing for instance, and the individual beats to a gentle lilt.

You can also adjust the timing of any individual beats by hand in Template:W - what you might do is set up the rhythm first using swing and lilt for all the parts - then listen to it and then micro-adjust the individual beats to your preference to get the rhythm you like.

The way of doing lilt here for more than two subdivisions is only one way of doing it..

Swung notes

Swung notes are a feature of many types of music. Notes are played alternately longer and shorter than usual though normally notated all the same length. See the wikipedia article on Swung Note. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swung_note

Types of music that use swung notes include jazz, Celtic music, some dance and country music, and early music particularly France from the middle of the 16th century to late 18th century.

the early music use (notes in?gal) see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notes_in%C3%A9gales

and the Dolmetsch site on notes in?gal

http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory20.htm#egal

For the precursors much earlier in the Ars Antiqua rhythmic modes:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhythmic_mode

Gentle Lilt

In nearly all types of music the beats in a bar are uneven in a subtle way. You notice this especially if you compare it with computer generated music with the notes all exactly the same length. Varying the beat with a gentle lilt makes the music much more natural sounding and it is likely to be easier to play along with.

So, if you find it easier to play along with other musicians than a metronome, it may well be because you are used to playing with a lilt and can't adjust your playing to the strict clock like beat of a metronome. This gentle lilt in your playing is something good, to foster. So when you do metronome practice, it is good if you can adjust the metronome to play a lilt :-) (unless you need to play a clock-like strict beat for some reason for a particular piece say).

To do this in Bounce Metronome Pro, just use the gentler settings for swing, such as Gentle lilt. You may also want to unselect "Swing parts with most beats only". This lets you apply a bit of lilt to all the parts in the rhythm, e.g. do the four beats of 4/4 with a lilt to them - a gradual change of timing through the bar. You probably only want a small amount of lilt for this. Then you could use a larger amount of swing if you want to swing quavers subdivisions of each beat.

Amount of swing

With swung notes, you can feel that the beats are uneven in a more noticeable way than a gentle lilt. The second beat in a pair is normally faster than the first.

The amount of swing can vary. So for instance you can have a light swing with the beats in a ratio of 3:2 or a hard swing of 3:1 or a medium swing of 2:1. Or the swing can be in between those amounts, it's not a fixed thing that it has to be 2:1 for instance.

A medium swing has the same timing as a triplet crotchet followed by a triplet quaver (UK crotchet followed by quaver). However it isn't really a triplet rhythm - the second note you would expect in a triplet is missing. It is usually notated as a pair of quavers - understood to be played with a "swing feel".

You can set any of these amounts of swing in Bounce Metronome Pro by adjusting the slider.

" Triplet Swing" - really a swung duplet with triplet timing

The medium swing is also called a triplet swing because of the triplet timing. But it isn't really in compound time because of the missing second note. It is a beat with two subdivisions with an uneven rhythm. So, it is really, more accurately, a swung duplet with a triplet timing.

Jigs are played with Swung Triplets (not to be confused with triplet swing

Sometimes though you get true swung triplets - I mean triplets of three notes played with a swung feel to them, as in jigs in Scottish Folk Music. So in those, you have three different note lengths there rather than just the two note lengths of ordinary swing. The usual two numbers such as 2:1 for a medium swing aren't enough to specify the amount of swing of a swung triplet.

To find out more about the swing rhythm for jigs in Celtic music see Jigs: Trickier than you probably think

http://www.rogermillington.com/siamsa/brosteve/tricky.html

There are different ways to play the swung triplets of a jig. For a discussion thread see:

http://www.thesession.org/discussions/display/12135/comments

Indeed there are many more ways you could play a triplet, with three notes - you could choose any note to be the shortest, then any other note to be the longest, giving six possibilities (L M S, L S M, M L S, S L M, S M L, M S L), and that's not taking account of all the subtle variations in timing within each of those options.

However, one natural and straightforward way is inspired by the way a drum stick behaves if you drop it lightly on the drum. It plays several subdivisions one after another each faster than the previous one, followed by a slightly longer beat to raise the drum stick for the next beat. You get the same rhythm if you drop a bouncing ball from a height. So that's the L S M option. That is exactly how it's played in the various styles of jig rhythm - whether that's a coincidence or not I don't know.

So that's how it's done in Bounce Metronome Pro. So you play the first beat a bit slower than usual, and the next beat a bit faster. That's followed by a medium length beat to raise the drum stick before the next series of bounces. So - just like the way you play the rhythm in a Celtic Jig.

Another subtlety about Jigs is that they are often played with the second triplet in the 6/8 slightly faster than the first so with a very slightly uneven step. Hardly noticeable, but if you listen carefully you hear it.

Also the bars vary in timing too with a lilt - again if you lisen carefully, the first bar may be normal speed, second bar a little faster, third back to normal, fourth a bit slower than the first, the tempo varying very slightly in waves like that. That's common in many styles of music but perhaps a little more noticeable in Celtic music.

Swung notes with four or more subdivisions

When you have four or more subdivisions, then Bounce Metronome Pro does it in the same way, each beat is played faster than the previous one, like the bounces of a bouncing ball or drum stick. So in a four subdivisions swing, the first note is slower than normal, then the next one is a little faster, the third note is the fastest of all, then followed by a slower note again for the lift of the drum stick before the next main beat.

Of course there are many other types of rhythm or "grooves" with uneven timings. Or you may want to vary the swing in subtle ways in the bar.

If that's what you need, you can also set the timings of the beats individually or tap out a rhythm for the bar yourself.

Select a Part to adjust (editable) (Alt + A)

Choose which part to adjust the beats for

Adjust Swing (slider)

Move slider to adjust the amount of swing - OR click here then use LEFT and RIGHT keys, Page Up, Page Down, Home or End...

Select a Part to adjust (editable) (Alt + A)

Number of beats per bar for the selected part

Adjust Swing for Part with Most Beats (slider)

Move slider to adjust the amount of swing for this part - OR use LEFT and RIGHT keys, Page Up, Page Down, Home or End. Hold down SHIFT key for REVERSE SWING...

The notches on the slider indicate:No lilt, Gentle lilt, Strong lilt, LIght swing, Medum Swing and Hard swing.

For more detail see Beats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76) - which also has preset buttons for Light, Medium and Hard swing etc.

The reverse swing option is useful for e.g. Scottish Snap (Lombard rhythm) which is the reverse of hard swing.

Beats per "bar" (editable) (Alt + B)

Move slider to adjust the amount of swing for this part - OR use LEFT and RIGHT keys, Page Up, Page Down, Home or End. Hold down SHIFT key for REVERSE SWING...

The notches on the slider indicate:No lilt, Gentle lilt, Strong lilt, LIght swing, Medum Swing and Hard swing.

For more detail see Beats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76) - which also has preset buttons for Light, Medium and Hard swing etc.

The reverse swing option is useful for e.g. Scottish Snap (Lombard rhythm) which is the reverse of hard swing.

Adjust Swing for 2nd Part (slider)

Adjust amount of swing for part 2

Beats per "bar" (editable) (Alt + B)

Adjust amount of swing for part 2

Beats per "bar" (editable) (Alt + B)

Adjust amount of swing for part 2

; (semicolon) Play Seed (button) (Alt + ;)

Plays the rhythm or melody for the highlighted part for one bar...

With the fractal tunes - this plays the melodic seed which is used to construct the entire tune.

Skip coincident notes (check box)

Skips coincident notes in the parts with most notes - may be useful when each part plays a different instrument...

This can help to make the bar beat and the main beats more distinctive in sound.

Default is switched off - then the instrument for the subbeats plays on every beat including all the main beats and including the down beat (measure beat).

The rhythm may have a slightly syncopated feel to it as e.g. only the instrument for the bar beat part plays the down beat.

Easiest way to hear how it works, just try it out.

HOW IT WORKS IN DETAIL WITH EXAMPLE

E.g. in 4/4 with 2 sub-beats.

if set to:

Part 1: 4 BEATS per bar - Low Conga

Part 2: 8 BEATS per bar - High Bongo

Part 3: 1 BEAT per bar - Low Wood Block

Then the preset with this switched OFF is to play the rhythm as

WCB B CB B CB B CB B

Where W is the Wood Block, C is Conga and B is Bongo and e.g. WCB means to play the Wood Block, Conga and Bongo simultaneously.

With this switched ON then you play the rhythm as

W B C B C B C B

So then e.g. the Wood Block is the only instrument to play the bar beat, and the Bongo skips all the main beats of the rhythm, more of a syncopated effect.

Only swing part with most beats (check box)

This is usually the part you want to swing if you swing one part only...

If you switch this off then you need to set the amount of swing separately for each part.

This can be useful, for instance if you want to add a gentle lilt in one part on top of the swing in another part. Or if you want to swing a different part from the default.

The part with most beats in it is usually the part for the subdivisions, so the one you want to swing. So that's why this is the default setting.

Auto Accents (check box) (Alt + C)

Varies volumes of the OFF BEAT NOTES automatically. For triplets or n-tuplets, makes them gradually quieter, in the way a drumstick bounces if you let it fall loosely...

When lilted in pairs then the second beat is quieter than the first in each pair. When lilted in triplets or more than three notes, each beat is quieter than the previous one exactly in the way it happens with a bouncing ball or drumstick (exponential decay). You can also set it to accent the last beat slightly in triplets or n-tuplets, as players sometimes do. Or you can set it to accent alternate notes. This depends on your settings in Swing, Auto Accents and Time Signature Change - Preferences (Ctrl + 232)

To get syncopation and Jazz type accents, i.e. with the off beat notes accented, set the amount of the auto accents larger than 100.

Automatic choice to lilt in pairs, triplets, or more notes

The automatic choice to lilt in pairs, triplets, or more notes depends on the reinforced beats.

For instance in the 6/8 preset the third beat is reinforced, as it is played in both of the first two parts. So this rhythm is lilted or swung as two triplets.

In 3/4 with each crotchet split into quavers, the second and fourth beats of the six beat part are reinforced. So this time, the six beats (of part 2) are lilted or swung in pairs.

In both of those examples the number of beats to the bar is the same, six beats for part 1.

You can override this by setting the metrical pulse yourself in Beats volumes and times (Ctrl + 76)

You can set any number as the metrical pulse and indeed, one can get interesting rhythms by using a pulse that doesn't match the rhythm, e.g. a metrical pulse of 4 in 6/8 or whatever.

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(By Robert Walker)