From Bounce Metronome
There is a fair bit of material on the web if you want to read more (though you have to search a bit to find it).
- Try the free on-line book Metronome Techniques by Frederick Franz, revised by Jon Truelson especially his Chapter 2.His history section is an interesting read too. That's where I found out about Hansom's 1893 mechanical conducting metronome (see #Patents below)
- A good book on metronome practise is Mac Santiago's "Beyond the metronome"
- Another good book on metronome practise: Andrew Lewis's Rhythm, What it is and how to improve your sense of it especially his book 2 How to improve your sense of rhythm
- Joe Craig's Rhythm has a good section on the rhythmic magic of musicians and how to practise with the metronome to get the feel of playing ahead, behind and on the beat.
- Then there's the PhD Thesis by Alexander Evan Bonus: The Metronomic Performance Practice: A History of Rhythm, Metronomes, and the Mechanization of Musicality
- Many more links of interest in the reference section for the Wikipedia article on the Metronome
Timing and Tempo variations and Micro Timing
- J.A. Progler Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm Section Ethnomuiscology Vol 39 No 1, Winter, 1995 - also available as download from the author's academic page here: Searching for Swing
- Ken Lindsay,and Pete Nordquist Pulse and Swing: Quantitative Analysis of Hierarchical Structure in Swing Rhythm
- Jeffrey Adam Bilmes Timing is of the Essence: Perceptual and Computational Techniques for Representing, Learning, and Reproducing Expressive Timing in Percussive Rhythm submitted for MSc. at MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY September 1993
- Paul Lamere Revisiting the click track from Music Machinery, a blog about music technology - great post with graphs of variation in timing and tempo for various songs, with and without click tracks.
- Andrew Robertson DECODING TEMPO AND TIMING VARIATIONS IN MUSIC RECORDINGS FROM BEAT ANNOTATIONS 13th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2012)
- Vijay Iyar Microtiming Studies (from thesis at Berkeley university).
- Rebecca Jane EVANS Time Out of Mind: The experience of being in time in musical improvisation Doctoral Thesis, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, 16h December 2011
- Harvard Gazette When the beat goes off Saturday, Nov. 17, 2012
Summarizing work published in: Hennig H, Fleischmann R, Fredebohm A, Hagmayer Y, Nagler J, et al. (2011) The Nature and Perception of Fluctuations in Human Musical Rhythms PLoS ONE 6(10):
- Allen Farmelo THE UNIFYING CONSEQUENCES OF GROOVING: AN INTRODUCTORY ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH TO UNITY THROUGH MUSIC 1997
These articles by Michael Stewart look interesting but haven't been able to obtain them yet:
- Michael Stewart: THE FEEL FACTOR A Guide To Prgramming Music With Soul, Sound on Sound, October 1987
- Michael Stewart: " Creativity, Recording, and the Conscious Mind. Electronic Musician, November 1988:44-8."
There's plenty of material on this on the web. Here are a few I've found:
This site is especially interesting as it also goes into the philosophy / spirituality behind the African polyrhythms Foundation Course in African Music | Rhythmic Principles. See also the wikipedia article Ewe drumming
For practicing Indian polyrhythms, Practicing and making music without your instrument
There are a couple of modern patents for conducting metronomes, one in Spain and one in the US. I discovered them recently, long after I first published Bounce Metronome but they do predate it. Also there's one nineteenth century US patent for a mechanical conducting metronome.
The patents are:
- Mechanical conducting metronome J.T. Hansom filed, January 9, 1894.
- Visual music conducting device John N. Kestner-Clifton et al] - Patent number: 5275082 - Issue date: 4 Jan 1994
- Sine Metronome patent Inventors: IRUETA Aramayo, JOSEBA ANDONI Date of Application: 23/05/2007, Award Date: 17/11/2010
You can read more about the Sine Metronome here: the Sine Metronome which includes a video of his metronome in action (as a dot moving on the screen).
There's a bit more about Hansom's mechanical conducting metronome here: J. Treadway Hanson's demonstration of a mechanical conducting metronome in 1893.
I first got the idea for Bounce metronome on 23rd November 2008, can date it precisely as I blogged about it here on the very day I had the idea: Bouncing ball metronome
Get Bounce Metronome Pro
Download your Free Test Drive of Bounce Metronome Pro Now (with free taster metronome yours to keep)! It's easy to use - just choose a preset rhythm and click on the dial to set the tempo - and has many special features to help with your metronome practise.
Some of the other software metronomes
I also maintain a list of other software and on-line metronomes, which you can find here:
I'm Robert Walker, the inventor and programmer for Bounce Metronome Pro. These Many Ways to Use a Metronome pages arise out of the research I did for the program, and feedback from users of the software.