From Bounce Metronome
There is a fair bit of material on the web if you want to read more (though you have to search a bit to find it).
- Try the free on-line book Metronome Techniques by Frederick Franz, (1947, revised by Jon Truelson) especially his Chapter 2.His history section is an interesting read too. That's where I found out about Hansom's 1893 mechanical conducting metronome (see #Patents below)
- Book by Andrew Lewis: Rhythm, What it is and how to improve your sense of it (buy on author's website) especially his book 2 How to improve your sense of rhythm (2005, ISBN 0975466704)
- Joe Craig's Rhythm has a good section on the rhythmic magic of musicians and how to practise with the metronome to get the feel of playing ahead, behind and on the beat.
- Then there's the PhD Thesis by Alexander Evan Bonus: The Metronomic Performance Practice: A History of Rhythm, Metronomes, and the Mechanization of Musicality
- Many more links of interest in the reference section for the Wikipedia article on the Metronome
Timing and Tempo variations and Micro Timing
- J.A. Progler Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm Section Ethnomuiscology Vol 39 No 1, Winter, 1995 - also available as download from the author's academic page here: Searching for Swing
- Ken Lindsay,and Pete Nordquist Pulse and Swing: Quantitative Analysis of Hierarchical Structure in Swing Rhythm
- Jeffrey Adam Bilmes Timing is of the Essence: Perceptual and Computational Techniques for Representing, Learning, and Reproducing Expressive Timing in Percussive Rhythm submitted for MSc. at MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY September 1993
- Paul Lamere Revisiting the click track from Music Machinery, a blog about music technology - great post with graphs of variation in timing and tempo for various songs, with and without click tracks.
- Andrew Robertson DECODING TEMPO AND TIMING VARIATIONS IN MUSIC RECORDINGS FROM BEAT ANNOTATIONS 13th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2012)
- Vijay Iyar Microtiming Studies (from thesis at Berkeley university).
- Rebecca Jane EVANS Time Out of Mind: The experience of being in time in musical improvisation Doctoral Thesis, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, 16h December 2011
- Harvard Gazette When the beat goes off Saturday, Nov. 17, 2012
Summarizing work published in: Hennig H, Fleischmann R, Fredebohm A, Hagmayer Y, Nagler J, et al. (2011) The Nature and Perception of Fluctuations in Human Musical Rhythms PLoS ONE 6(10):
- Allen Farmelo THE UNIFYING CONSEQUENCES OF GROOVING: AN INTRODUCTORY ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH TO UNITY THROUGH MUSIC 1997
These articles by Michael Stewart look interesting but haven't been able to obtain them yet:
- Michael Stewart: THE FEEL FACTOR A Guide To Prgramming Music With Soul, Sound on Sound, October 1987
- Michael Stewart: " Creativity, Recording, and the Conscious Mind. Electronic Musician, November 1988:44-8."
There's plenty of material on this on the web. Here are a few I've found:
This site is especially interesting as it also goes into the philosophy / spirituality behind the African polyrhythms Foundation Course in African Music | Rhythmic Principles. See also the wikipedia article Ewe drumming
For practicing Indian polyrhythms, Practicing and making music without your instrument
Then there's New Musical Resources - by Henry Cowell. It has a long section on rhythm, also exploring polyrhythms and harmonic polyrhythms. Cowell is the one who commissioned Theremin to make the Rhythmicon for exploring these polyrhythms based on the harmonics series.
There are a couple of modern patents for conducting metronomes, one in Spain and one in the US. I discovered them recently, long after I first published Bounce Metronome but they do predate it. Also there's one nineteenth century US patent for a mechanical conducting metronome.
The patents are:
- Mechanical conducting metronome J.T. Hansom filed, January 9, 1894.
- Visual music conducting device John N. Kestner-Clifton et al] - Patent number: 5275082 - Issue date: 4 Jan 1994
- Sine Metronome patent Inventors: IRUETA Aramayo, JOSEBA ANDONI Date of Application: 23/05/2007, Award Date: 17/11/2010
You can read more about the Sine Metronome here: the Sine Metronome which includes a video of his metronome in action (as a dot moving on the screen).
There's a bit more about Hansom's mechanical conducting metronome here: J. Treadway Hanson's demonstration of a mechanical conducting metronome in 1893.
I first got the idea for Bounce metronome on 23rd November 2008, can date it precisely as I blogged about it here on the very day I had the idea: Bouncing ball metronome
Get Bounce Metronome Pro
Download your Free Test Drive of Bounce Metronome Pro Now (with free taster metronome yours to keep)! It's easy to use - just choose a preset rhythm and click on the dial to set the tempo - and has many special features to help with your metronome practise.
Some of the other software metronomes
I also maintain a list of other software and on-line metronomes, which you can find here:
I'm Robert Walker, the inventor and programmer for Bounce Metronome Pro. These Many Ways to Use a Metronome pages arise out of the research I did for the program, and feedback from users of the software.